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Euboea (Evia)

Euboea (Evia)

General Info:
Evia is the second largest island of Greece and the sixth largest in the Mediterranean. Its acreage is 3,654 square klm and extends opposite to the eastern coast of mainland , from the Maliakos Gulf to the coast of Rafina, from which is separated by the Evoiki Sea. It has an oblong shape, with an average width of 10 to 15 kilometers and 180 kilometers long. Part of Evia's administration is also the island of Skyros, to the east.
At the closest point to mainland, the capital and largest city on the island, Chalkis, is built; there also exists one of the two bridges with mainland, the old bridge of Chalkis. Newly built is the "high bridge" of Chalkis, one of the biggest suspended bridges in Europe. The island has about 200,000 residents, with at least half of them living in Chalkis.
The major cities of Evia are: Chalkis, Psahna, Isteaia, Karystos, Kimi, Edipsos, Limni, Aliveri, Amarynthos, Avlonari, Basilika and Mantoudi.

Road transport with the rest of Greece is feasible through Chalkis, while boat transport includes: from Karystos and Marmari to Rafina, from Karystos to Kea, from Eretria to Oropos (in the south) - from Evia to Arkitsa, from Pyrgos to Glyfa, from Pefki to Platanias and Skiathos (in the north) and also from Kimi to Skyros.

Geologically, Evia is regarded as a continuation of Attica. Its terrain consists mainly of slate and presents many geological formations. Volcanic activity seems to have been intense, and caused the separation of Evia from the mainland.
The main mountains are: Dirfi (1,745 m), Ochi (1,404 m), Pyxaria (1,352 m), Kandili (1,210 m) and Olympus (1,175 m).
Main bays are North and South Evoikos, joined by the Straits of Euripus (minimum width 40 meters). Other bays of Evia, north to the Strait of Euripus are Vatontas, Lake and Edipsos and at the south: Aliveri, Karystos, and the Gulf of Kimi in the Aegean.

Along the coast of Euboea many smaller islands can be found, among which are: Lichados, Petale, Myrto, the Prasouda and the Mouse island. 
The main capes are Kafireas (Cavo d'oro) at the South and Artemisium at the North.

The climate is generally mild and healthy, conducing to abundant vegetation and natural beauty of Evia, with enough rainfall at the east (towards the Aegean coast).

Olive oil, olives, wine, figs, wheat, vegetables and fish are produced in Evia. Livestock has been developed and valuable deposits of minerals and ores exist. Economic activity also includes flour industries, olive oil production, winemaking, fishfarms, tanneries, thermoelectric plants and wind plants, spas and developed trade and –lately-tourism.

The ancient inhabitants of Euboea were Avantes, Dryopes, Isteaii, Ellopi and Curetes. Since the 8th century BC, the Evian cities founded colonies in Chalkidiki, southern Italy, Sicily and Asia Minor, but later the Lilantio war, between Chalcis and Eretria, led the whole region to a decline. As of the 5th century BC, Evia becomes an ally of Athens. In 191 BC it was conquered by the Romans and in 87 BC was destroyed by Mithridates. In 1205 it was conquered by Boniface of Montferrat and stayed under Venetian rule until 1470 when acquired by the Turks. Evia took part in the revolution of 1821 and was delivered to Greece by the Turks in 1833.

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